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Author Guidelines

Purpose of Guidelines I Audience Profile I Writing Tips

Style Guidelines I Citation Format I Reference Format

Abstract Format I Submission Format I Online Resources

Purpose of Guidelines

To streamline the editorial process and ensure that all papers meet the needs of a diverse international audience, the editors of City & Time have developed Guidelines for Authors to assist you with the preparation of your submissions.

Although nearly all contributors are skilled writers, your attention to the Guidelines for Authors will help City & Time`s volunteer staff members spend less time editing your work and help you ensure that your message is communicated clearly to readers.

The Guidelines for Authors provide you with quick tips that emphasize the following:

  • The electronic medium. Shorter sentences and paragraphs are best suited to electronic publications. Readers need text that is concise and useful rather than wordy and general; therefore, writing to express rather than impress will best promote your ideas. (Refer to Writing Tips for further information.)
  • The City & Time audience. Since the City & Time audience is both diverse and international in scope, readers will better understand your message through simple explanations and less complex sentences. (Refer to Audience Profile for further information.)
  • Consistency in style and format. The specified guidelines for style as well as abstract, citation, reference, and submission formats create a smoother editorial process for City & Time staff members. Consistency in these elements also minimizes readers? confusion about the treatment of various elements. (Refer to Style
    , Citation Format, Reference Format, Abstract Format, and Submission Format for further information.)

City & Time?s Guidelines for Authors are not absolute and certainly subject to variances. However, keeping them in mind helps the editors, and more importantly, helps your readers.

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Audience Profile

City & Time is expected to attract a diverse international readership. When preparing documents for submission, consider the following:

  • English is not the first language of many City & Time readers.
  • A large percentage of City & Time readers are still
    undergraduated students.
  • Cultures, educational backgrounds, and fields of study vary greatly among City & Time readers.

The expected audience City & Time`s audience suggest that more readers will better understand your message through simple explanations and less complex sentences. Even an expert in your own industry or field of study would prefer to glean your meaning without sorting through overly complex

Refer to the Writing Tips section for further information on creating concise text for a diverse international audience.

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Writing Tips

Consider the following tips for creating concise text:

Be Specific

Be specific about all references to time, quantity, etc.

Instead of using currently or recently, specify last spring. Often when now and currently are implied, these words can be deleted without loss of meaning.

Instead of saying several units were added, give a number or a rough estimate, such as almost 100.

Use Shorter Words

Choose short, familiar words whenever possible.

When more than 15 percent of your words (except verbs and proper nouns) are three or more syllables, readers work too hard to understand your message. To reduce larger words, consider these tips:

  • Use about instead of approximately; use rather than utilize.
  • Convert nouns ending in ?ion into verbs. Use "We considered . . . " instead of "We took into consideration . . . . "
  • Replace endeavor with try, aggregate with total, and optimum with best.

Delete Extra Words

Making your point without extraneous words helps readers clearly understand your message.

  • Evaluate every that in your text. Often that can be deleted without loss of meaning.
  • Avoid starting sentences with "In order to . . . . " By deleting the words "in order," you lose no meaning.
  • Rarely is the word very needed. Consider deleting it or choosing another word. Very good can be excellent, and very important can be key.

Use Shorter Sentences

Keep at least 75 percent of your sentences an average length of 10?20 words. If a sentence is longer than three typed lines, consider shortening it.

Think of your sentence lengths as music: quick, quick, slow becomes short, short, longer. Pleasing variations help your readers pay attention.

Use Shorter Paragraphs

Keep at least 75 percent of your paragraphs one to three sentences long. If a paragraph is more than five typed lines, consider shortening it.

Avoid Cliches & Jargon

Choose original ways of writing your message, avoiding well?known phrases such as, When push comes to shove and By the same token. These cliches and well?worn phrases will bore your readers.

Avoid the use of jargon whenever possible. This type of language or terminology will serve only to confuse readers who may be unfamiliar with your field of study.

Watch Use of It

Avoid starting a sentence or clause with It unless the pronoun has a clear antecedent.

Watch Use of There

Avoid starting sentences with There to prevent the use of "empty" introductory language.

Use Strong Verbs

Use "strong" verbs whenever possible. Forms of the verb to be (e.g. am, is, are, was, were) do not maintain readers? interest.

Instead of saying, "The meeting was productive," consider, "The meeting generated good ideas for . . . . "

Favor the Active Voice

Favor the active voice over the passive voice to avoid vagueness unless the action is more important than the doer of the action.

Use of the imperative is a good technique for attracting readers and minimizing the use of passive voice constructions.

Ask So what?

After you`ve written your text, evaluate every sentence by asking yourself, Why is this particular piece of information important to my readers?

If you cannot answer the question adequately about a sentence, consider deleting it.


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Style Guidelines

For general Internet writing style and usage, authors are encouraged to consult Wired Style: Principles of English Usage in the Digital Age, edited by Constance Hale (San Francisco: HardWired, 1996).

For City & Time?s editorial purposes, please adhere to these style guidelines when referencing the following:


Explain each and every first occurrence.

For example, state World Heritage Centre (WHC), allowing the use of WHC later in the manuscript.


Dates should appear in date?month?year format, as in "The first issue of City & Time appeared on Monday, 22 November 2004."

Electronic Mail

Refer to electronic mail as e?mail or E?mail but not email or Email.


The Internet should be called the Internet, not the internet, the net, the Net, or the ?Net.


The numbers zero through nine should be spelled out except when referring to data or measurements, such as "The figure measures 3 pixels by 2 pixels ...."

All whole numbers above nine should appear as Arabic numerals, such as 10, 11, 12,....

Ordinal numbers should be spelled out, as in twentieth.

A number at the start of a sentence should be spelled out, as in " Fourteen heritage sites were analysed .... "


Write percent, not %.


Favor the use of the second?person pronoun, you, over the indefinite third?person singular pronoun, one.Do not assume that the pronoun for a third?person singular noun is him or he. To avoid awkward constructions like he/she, revise sentences.

Tables & Figures

Capitalize all references to your own tables and figures, such as "see Figure 1" or "see Table 2 below".

Always spell out the words Figure or Table in reference to illustrations in the course of the paper.

Use lower case for references to figures or tables in cited literature, such as (Kokomo, 1999, figure 8) or (Dolton, 1968, table 5).

Verb Tense

Choose a verb tense and maintain its use throughout the document. Carefully consider use of the future tense, as often it is unnecessary.

In discussions of the literature, use the past tense, as in "Brand (1977) remarked that ... ."

World Wide Web

Use the Web or the World Wide Web but not the web.

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Citation Format

Citations in the course of the manuscript should appear in the following ways:

General Format

The last name of the author of cited work should appear in the paper, followed by the year of publication of the book, paper, report, or document, as in (Brandi, 1977).

If there are several references to authors with the same surname, initials should be used to differentiate between the authors, as in (C. Jones, 1990; D. Jones, 1985).

Two Authors

For references containing two authors, list the authors in order of their appearance in the original publication, followed by date of publication, as in (Smith and Oliveira, 1985).

Three or More Authors

If a reference contains three or more authors, the citation should appear as (Cavalcanti et al., 1983).

Publications in Press

Cite publications in press (i.e. those documents accepted for publication but not yet published) as (Rivers, in press).

Direct Quotations

Cite direct quotations as (Brandi, 1977, p.55).

Indirect Quotations

A citation can refer to text written by one author embedded in the text of a book or paper written by another author, such as (Shorey in Zancheti, 1999).

Multiple Quotations

Multiple citations can appear in whatever order the author deems relevant, such as (Pontual, 1999; Canclini, 2003; Jokilehto, 1998).

All citations in the course of the paper should be completely described in the Reference Format section. Papers listed in the References section that are not cited in the course of the paper will be removed.
Citations to papers not found in References will be removed from the contents of the paper.

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Reference Format

References should take the following formats:

Papers in Journals

    Silvio M. Zancheti, 2002. "Values, built heritage and cyberspace", Museum International, volume 54, number 3, pp. 19-27.

    Steven Bachrach, R. Stephen Berry, Martin Blume, Thomas von Foerster, Alexander Fowler, Paul Ginsparg, Stephen Heller, Neil Kestner, Andrew Odlyzko, Ann Okerson, Ron Wigington, and Anne Moffat, 1998. "Who Should Own Scientific Papers?" Science, volume 281, number 5382, pp.

Papers in Press

    Betina Adams, in press. "Challenges and trends: the trajectory of urban preservation in Florianopolis / Santa Catarina Island / Brazil," City & Time.

Papers in Edited Volumes

    S. R. Schiffer, 2002. "A conservação urbana e a superação da pobreza," In: S. M. Zancheti (editor), Gestão do patrimônio cultural integrado. Recife: Editora Universitária - UFPE, pp. 297 - 304.

Papers in Conference Proceedings

    L. Motta, 1999. "Urban heritage: self-maintenance and the role of the state," In: S. M. Zancheti (editor). Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Urban Conservation. Recife: Editora Universitária - UFPE,  pp. 237 - 251.

Papers in Journals on the World Wide Web

    Vittorio Corinaldi, 2004. "Cidade Branca. Tel Aviv torna-se patrimônio mundial da humanidade," Arquitextos, number 50, at

World Wide Web Sites

Book by One Author

    N. Cohen, 1999. Urban conservation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Books by More Than One Author

    Giuseppe Campus Venuti and Francesco Oliva, 1993. "Cinquant?anni di urbanistica in Italia. 1942 - 1992". Laterza, Bari. 

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Abstract Format

All papers submitted to City & Time for consideration must include an abstract, or a brief summary of a paper?s fundamental findings and conclusions. A well?written abstract will pique the interest of readers by succintly presenting that facts and ideas that build a paper.

Consider the following guidelines for creating effective, elegant abstracts that express main ideas and engage readers:

  • Place the abstract before the formal contents of the paper and after the title and author statements.

  • Limit the abstract to 250 words.

  • State the main ideas of the paper only, avoiding unnecessary details and explanations that are addressed in the body of the paper.

  • Do not include references or notes in the abstract.

  • Use proper grammar, punctuation, and English language conventions.

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Submission Format

Submit one complete copy of your manuscript, including tables and figures, for review purposes to the Editorial Office
and the Chief Editor.

Each manuscript should contain the following elements:

1. Title page 

  • A title;
  • Names of authors and institution affiliations with electronic mail addresses;

2. Main text 

  • The title of the article 
  • An abstract;

  • Clearly labeled contents that include an introduction, discussion, and conclusion;
  • Internal citations;
  • Brief biographical statement identified with the heading "About the Author";
  • Acknowledgments;
  • Notes (if any); and
  • References.

Title and Author(s)

  • Place the title of the paper at the top of the first page of the manuscript. Follow the title by the full name of all authors, with their institutional affiliations and electronic mail addresses.

  • If one author should function as the point of contact for questions or comments, please indicate so with the phrase "direct comments to" followed by the author?s e?mail address.

Illustrations, Figures & Tables

  • All illustrations (up to five) should be sent as separate .GIF or .JPG files, clearly labeled simply as figure1.gif, figure2.gif, etc. with their location marked in the manuscript in this fashion: Insert figure1.gif Here, Caption (for example) = This is the first figure in my paper. The llustrations should be no larger than 203 x 254 mm (8 x 10 in) with resolution of 300 pixels per inch. 

  • Figures and tables should appear in consecutive order in the text and be cited in the document consecutively.

  • Additional data, illustrations, commentary, and complicated tables should be placed in consecutively numbered appendices at the end of the manuscript.


    Notes in the manuscript should be consecutively numbered, and collected at the end of the paper after the conclusion and before the References section.

Word Processed Submissions

  • All tables and figures should be imbedded in the manuscript in their logical locations for reference.
  • The entire document should be double-spaced, including abstract, text, references, tables, figure captions, and appendices.
  • All pages should be numbered, starting with the title page.
  • Use only a basic, widely available font like Courier 12 point.
  • Do not justify or break words at the right margin.

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Online Resources

To assist you with the self?editing process, City & Time has compiled the following list of online resources on grammar and style. You may wish to consult these resources prior to submitting your manuscript for consideration.


    The Webgrammar site offers advice and guidance for writers at all levels of scholarship as well as a portal to other sources of help for writers.

The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation

    This site is online companion to the print version of Jane Straus`s The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation, an excellent resource for examining the rules of punctuation.

Common Errors in English

    Written by Paul Brians, Professor of English at Washington State University, this informational page examines the most common errors in the English language. While the site focuses on the proper use of American English, it also offers valuable tips for anyone writing in English.

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Submission Preparation Checklist (All items required)

The submission has not been previously published nor is it before another journal for consideration; or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor.

The submission file is in Microsoft Word or RTF document file format.

All URL addresses in the text (e.g., are activated and ready to click.

The text was written using the template provided by C&T; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); with figures and tables placed within the text, rather than at the end.

The text meets this journal`s formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines found in About the Journal. If the journal section is peer reviewed, author identification has been removed, and "Author" and year have been used in the bibliography and footnotes, instead of authors` names, titles, etc. The author`s name has been removed from the document`s Properties, which in Microsoft Word is found in the File menu.

Copyright Notice
Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.

Privacy Statement
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

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City & Time  ISSN: 1807-7544